You can find five of them on the Insert Chart ribbon or the All Charts dialog: Treemap, Sunburst, Box & Whisker, Waterfall and Histogram.
The sixth, Pareto, is under the Histogram option.
A waterfall chart shows how an initial value is increased and decreased by a series of intermediate values, leading to a final value. Often called bridge charts.
Treemapping is a method for displaying hierarchical data by using nested rectangles.
Commonly used in statistics, a histogram automatically displays the frequencies within a distribution.
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.
Box and Whisker Charts
Like the Histogram chart, the Box & Whisker chart shows the distribution of information. For deeper analysis, this chart goes further by providing key insights about the distribution in one view, including range, quartiles, mean and outliers.
The sunburst chart is ideal for displaying hierarchical data. Each level of the hierarchy is represented by one ring or circle with the innermost circle as the top of the hierarchy. A sunburst chart without any hierarchical data (one level of categories), looks similar to a doughnut chart. However, a sunburst chart with multiple levels of categories shows how the outer rings relate to the inner rings.